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the body’s response to acute exercise

Unit 2: The Physiology of Fitness

Guided Learning Hours: 30

Unit Content

1 Know the body’s response to acute exercise

Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fibre micro tears

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities

Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation

Respiratory: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume

2 Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness

Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid

Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid

Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate

Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source

3 Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the body systems

Types of exercise: eg aerobic, resistance, circuit, interval

Methods of investigation: comparison of pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological readings, eg resting heart rate, exercise heart rate, percent heart rate maximum, percent heart rate reserve maximum, Rating of Perceived Exertion, blood pressure, flexibility tests, spirometry

Review: effects of exercise on the body systems (acute and long-term); pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological data; practicality of exercise activities selected; advantages and disadvantages; strengths and areas for improvement


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