Lit Review Outline Directions with Examples
The purpose of this milestone is to begin the process of becoming an expert on your topic. As a group, decide on a medical condition that is caused by your assigned human activity.
1. Begin to brainstorm about a taskforce name for your group
a. Extinction of bees caused by pesticides – The Sting without the Buzz / A Different Kind of Buzz
b. Loss of sustainability though Corporate Ownership– Farmageddon / Make Faming Great Again
c. Plastic Pollution and hormone Disruption: Save the Jugs / Plus Sized Plastic / Bottles Swimmers
2. List out 6 subtopics that will help create a comprehensive review of the literature on your topic. Find at least 15 articles that are related to your topic and specific role. And three references for each subtopic. References can be reused for more than one subtopic. Create a literature review outline. For each reference list a minimum of 3 relevant, specific and detailed pieces of information rewritten in your own words, that will be helpful as you progress through the course (relevant statistics, current treatment, legislation, history).
3. Articles published by non-profit, health, agricultural and environmental organizations or coalitions that are already involved in your topic (for or against). It might not be a bad idea to see what the opposition’s position is. These most likely will not be sources for a literature review but often reference studies that are peer reviewed or governmental agency reports which you will be able to use.
4. Published articles by investigative journals like BBC, PBS, NPR, Huffington Post, the Guardian, New York Times or Washington Post can also help you to get your feet wet. Often these sources reference studies that are peer reviewed or governmental agency reports
5. Lobbying groups that have influenced policy makers to create legislation that has led to the threat of a health care crisis.
6. Information on current legislation and laws related to your topic
7. Absolutely no dot coms
Keep your role in mind during the investigation
· Medical care provider – you will be identifying the toxin or nutrient imbalance and will also be an expert the disease and current treatment
· Epidemiologist/ Sociologist – you will be making the link between the human activity and the health related issue. You will be an expert in the social or ecological environment depending on your topic.
· Scientist- you will be creating a revolutionary treatment and will be an expert in the pathophysiology of the disease as well as research and development.
· Public Health Educator- you will be providing the history of the industry / institution involved in causing the health related issue, be an expert in legislation and provide alternative education material to prevent the public health or social issue.
Literature review Outline
1. The history of drinking milk
2. The Farm Bill
3. Lobbying and Market Control
A. (2013, October 31). Agriculture and Health Policies in Conflict: How Subsidies Tax our Health: Government Support for Unhealthful Foods. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://www.pcrm.org/health/reports/agriculture-and-health-policies-unhealthful-foodsAgriculture and
a. Commodity crops like corn, soy, barley, oats, sorghum, cotton, wheat, rice are receive the majority of federal farming subsidies
b. Dairy has its own federal subsidy programs
c. USDA refers to fresh veggies and fruit as specialty crops and does not receive subsidies.
d. If you grow commodity crops you cannot grow specialty crops
4. Environmental impact of Dairy
5. Farmers as Victims of Big Ag
6. Milk’s False claims to health
(2016, January 26). Health Concerns about Dairy Products. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://www.pcrm.org/health/diets/vegdiets/health-concerns-about-dairy-products
a. Clinical research shows dairy has no benefit for bones
b. High levels of IGF-1 has been linked with milk consumption and cancer
c. A large portion of people are lactose intolerant – Asians (95%), Native Americans (75%), and African Americans (70%).
d. Is a source of contamination like hormones, plastics and viruses
7. Bovine Leukemia
Bovine leukemia virus. (January 7, 2017). Wikipedia. Retrieved January 15, 2017, From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_leukemia_virus
a. Retrovirus that interrogates its self into the genome of the host in the lymph
b. Contains an oncogene HTLV 1 &2 that codes for a protein TAX
c. TAX interferes with the cell cycle and genetic integrity by blocking cellular pathways
Options in controlling BLV. (n.d.). Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://blv.msu.edu/
d. Unsuccessful at creating a vaccine at this time
e. Options for controlling BLV: more sanitary conditions within the herds = not using the same needle, use only BLV negative cattle for breading, change gloves during exams, clean equipment with blood on it (dehorning, tattooing)
f. Bovine leukemia has been eradicated from 12 European countries yet the US has done little to act
Sarah Yang, Media relations | September 15, 2015September 21, 2015, & Yang, S. (2015, September 21). Virus in cattle linked to human breast cancer. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://news.berkeley.edu/2015/09/15/bovine-leukemia-virus-breast-cancer
g. Researchers analyzed tissue from 239 women for the presence of BLV and compared the sample from women with and without breast cancer. 59% of women with breast cancer samples had evidence of exposure
h. 29% of the tissue samples from women without breast cancer had been exposed to the virus
i. Department of Agriculture found 100% of bulk milk tanks contained the virus. Smaller farms 83% of the milk was contaminated
j. This odds ratio is higher than other publicized risk factor (obesity, drinking, menopause)
k. Treatment could be shifted to prevention instead of reactionary
THIS IS NOT COMPLETE. DO THIS FOR 10 MORE REFERANCES